Black represention in Cincinnati under proportional voting

A reader asks, “When was first African-American candidate elected? Was representation continuous from then, until repeal? When was the first time there were two?” The answers are 1931, no, and November 1949.

Some context: Cincinnati used the single transferable vote in 31 elections, from 1925 to 1955. This was in tandem with an otherwise standard council-manager charter: nonpartisan elections, nine-seat assembly, responsible executive, and so forth.

Here is a list of Black candidates who ran, their parties, and whether they won. The list is based on having researched the identities of every declared candidate. “Charter” means an endorsee of this group, which used to be a coalition of Progressive Republicans and the mainline Democratic Party. A candidate’s name is underlined if they won a seat.

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Women in New York City’s ranked-choice City Council

New Yorkers elected their City Council under the single transferable vote (STV), 1937-45. Council voted in June 1945 to extend its own term from two to four years. The next STV election would have been in 1949, but the system was repealed by referendum in November 1947.

Cynthia Terrell asks, “Can you tell me what the highest number of women elected at the same time was under PR in NYC? And what year?” The answer is three, in 1941. Here is a list of all women who served.

November 1937
Genevieve Earle (Fusion, Minority Leader on death of Baruch Charney Vladeck)

November 1939
• Genevieve Earle (Fusion and Citizens’ Non-Partisan, Minority Leader)

November 1941
Rita Casey (Democratic)
• Genevieve Earle (Fusion and Citizens’ Non-Partisan, Minority Leader)
Gertrude Weil Klein (American Labor)

November 1943
• Genevieve Earle (Republican and Citizens’ Non-Partisan, Minority Leader)
• Gertrude Weil Klein (American Labor)

November 1945
• Genevieve Earle (Republican and Citizens’ Non-Partisan, Minority Leader)
Mae V. Gallis (Democratic, appointed to serve in place of James A. Phillips, pending special election in November 1947)*
Bertha Schwartz (Democratic)

Source for featured image: NYC Campaign Finance Board.

Reform measures in November 2018

Just a short note about Election Day referenda on alternative voting systems. I have been too busy to follow developments closely. The British Columbia vote on proportional representation is interesting to watch, however. All the old arguments are coming back out, which is what you could expect here, should we ever see another PR vote in a city or state with party competition. Anyway…

MEMPHIS (TN): Population 652,236. Voters are asked to repeal a never-implemented system of instant runoff (single-winner ranked-choice) voting. Actress Jennifer Lawrence has urged a “no” vote, working with Represent.US. (She and Represent.US also campaigned for RCV’s retention in Maine.) If implemented, RCV would replace a delayed-runoff system with majority threshold. Voters adopted RCV in 2008 (71 percent in favor). The local reform group, Save IRV Memphis, notes a large drop-off in some wards between the October first round and November runoff. The group says this drop-off is correlated with poverty.

FARGO (ND): Population 122,359. Voters will decide whether to switch to approval voting. Under this rule, voters check off any candidates of which they “approve,” and winners are those with the most votes. Elections to Fargo’s city commission are at large, by plurality, in a four-seat district two districts of two seats each. Backing the measure is the Center for Election Science, recently funded by the Open Philanthropy Project. A CES poll has support at 43 percent (with 36 percent saying “don’t know”). Prof. Mark Johnson of Minnesota State Community and Technical College weighs in. If passed, this would be the first adoption of approval voting for public elections in the US.

LANE COUNTY (OR): Population 369,519. Voters will decide whether to switch to STAR (“Score Then Automatic Runoff”) voting. With STAR, voters rate candidates on a 0-5 scale. Two candidates proceed to a runoff — those with the two highest sums of scores. In the runoff, each ballot counts toward the highest-scored candidate on it. (Ballots without most-preferred candidates do not continue to the runoff — they “exhaust.”) Lane County’s five-member Board of Commissioners is elected in a non-partisan, top-two system to five numbered posts. Backing the measure are STAR Voting for Lane County and the Equal Vote Coalition. STAR was invented in 2014. Organizers secured 16,000 signatures. Alan Zundel (formerly of UNLV) weighs in.

Sorry if I missed any. Let me know by the usual channels.